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artificial pacemaker full report
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A Paper presentation on
ARTIFICIAL PACEMAKER


Presented by
UDAITEJ REDDY .P SRIDHAR JILKAR
DEPARTMENT OF ECE-IV/IV DEPARTMENT OF ECE-IV/IV
TRR COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING TRR COLLEGE OF ENGG


ABSTRACT
Artificial pace maker is a one of the modern marvel in the medical science, it is the medical science solution to the electrical problems of a slow or irregular heartbeats. Pace maker is an electronic device that delivers electrical stimulation to the heart to help regulating its beat.
Our heart beats because of the natural pacemaker which produce electrical impulses .These impulses cause heart to contract and pump blood and the contraction takes place in a regular intervals .The impulses travel from the pacemaker cells to the muscle walls through some electrical path and cause contraction, generally a normal healthy human heart produces a heartbeat of about 60-100 beats per minute. If there is any interfere with the flow of electrical impulses, this will result in the irregular heartbeats i.e. too slow or two fast heart beats and a complete block of the electrical path. If this occurs contraction of the heart is stopped and blood will not get pumped. In this case a artificial pacemaker is employed in the place of natural pacemaker which works similar to it. The
artificial pace maker makes your heart to beat more regular than the natural pace maker. This artificial pace maker has two important parts one is the pulse generator which produces electrical impulses and other is the lead which carry the electrical impulses to the heart. The pulse generator is made of a computer chip, other electronic circuitry and a lithium battery all enclosed in a titanium case which is very small usually it is about 4 centimeters. This paper portrays about the manufacturing working, installation and scope of an artificial pace maker.
PACEMAKER
Pacemaker is a biomedical device that can regulate the human heart beat when normal mechanism was broke down .Pacemaker is surgically implemented in the chest cavity and has electrodes that are directly in contact with the heart .The first development of pace maker was in 1950â„¢s, from then it has underwent in to several modifications in the design and has found new applications science itâ„¢s invention. Today pace makers are widely in the human heart and implemented in many patients annually.
HISTROY
The idea of electronic device to produce consistent regulation of heart beat was not clear to early developers of pacemaker. The pacemaker was developed by paul zoll in the year 1952 it has two lead wires that could be attached to the belt worn by the patient. Through 1957 to 1960 several related improvements were in the zollâ„¢s pacemaker . Seymour furman had developed a modern technique for putting a pacemaker into the patientâ„¢s heart , this includes a method of inserting leads into a vein and threading them up into the ventricles instead of cutting and opening the chest .With the leads inside the heart even with very low voltages were needed to regulate the heartbeat .This increased the length of time of the pacemaker inside a person .This method was not widely implemented but by the late 1960â„¢s many specialists had switched to this pacemaker .science then several improvements have been made in their design ,including smaller pacemaker device longer lasting batteries and computer controls.
The original pace maker is very small, it has a length of 3-4 centimeters
PACE MAKER IS FOR WHOM
It for those who are having a
A complete block of the heart's electrical pathway.
A slow beat.
An irregular rhythm.
If the person is having a irregular heart beat or if your heart beat is sometimes too fast or too slow “blood is not pumped around your body well. In that case you are recommended to an artificial pace maker ,that make your heart to beat more regularly .And ensures that the blood is pumped well to the body.
PACEMAKER CHANGES LIFE FOR PATIENTS
One of the hundreds of thousands of people throughout the world lives has been changed for the better because of the pacemaker which is an ingenious electrical device which is pre-programmed to monitor the heart beat .If the heart beat drops below the programmed rate the pacemaker releases the electrical impulses which rectify the problem this type of pace makers are called as demand pacemakers. The major advantage of the pacemaker is that it does not require any fallow up of the medicine in most cases of the pacemaker implementation and they last for about 10 “ 15 years because of the battery which runs flat. There are different types of pace makers which suits to the different heart disorder .
WITH WHAT THIS PACEMAKER IS MADE UP OF
The raw materials which are used in manufacturing of pace maker are non-toxic, sterilizable, and able to function in the environmental conditions of the body. The various parts of the pacemaker, including the casing, microelectronics, and the leads, are all made with biocompatible materials. Typically, the casing is made of titanium or a titanium alloy. The lead is also made of a metal alloy, but it is insulated by a polymer such as polyurethane. Only the metal tip of the lead is exposed. The circuitry is usually made of modified silicon semiconductors. Pace makers are essentially composed of a battery, lead wires, and a circuitry. The primary function of pacemaker battery is to supply energy for the simulation of heart and to store energy for a long time running of the device. Batteries have two metals that form the anode and cathode. These are the battery components through which charge is transferred.
Pacemaker leads are tiny insulated wires that are designed to carry electricity from battery to the heart, depending on the type of pacemaker there are single lead pacemaker for single chamber and double lead pacemaker for a double chamber.
The circuitry is the control centre of the pacemaker these are of heart monitoring sensors, voltage regulators and a timing circuit. This is composed of a resistors, capacitors, diode, and semiconductors. With the application of the semiconductors modern circuits have become much more smaller when compare to the earlier models.
HOW DOES THE PACEMAKER WORKS
As we know pacemaker consists of battery, computerized generator, and wires with electrodes .The battery powers the generator and wires connect the generator to the heart. A pacemaker generator sends the electrical pulses to correct the heart rhythm. A computer chip figures out what types of electrical pulses to send to the heart and when those pulses are needed. To do this, the computer chip uses the information it receives from the wires connected to the heart. It also may use information from
Sensors in the wires that detect your movement, blood temperature, breathing, or other factors that indicate your level of physical activity. That is way, it can make your heart beat faster when you exercise. The computer chip also records your heart's electrical activity and heart rhythms. By using these we can know the working of a pacemaker without actually contacting it. Pacemakers have one to three wires that are each placed in different chambers of the heart.
The wires in a single-chamber pacemaker usually carry pulses between the right ventricle (the lower right chamber of your heart) and the generator.
The wires in a dual-chamber pacemaker carry pulses between the right atrium and the right ventricle and the generator. The pulses help coordinate the timing of these two chambers' contractions.
The wires in a triple-chamber pacemaker are used for heart muscle weakness and carry pulses between an atrium and both ventricles and the generator. The pulses help coordinate the timing of the two ventricles with each other.
Chest with a pace maker
In the figure A we can see the double lead pacemaker in the upper chest in which the electrodes are inserted into right atrium and ventricle of the heart through a vein in the upper chest. Figure B shows the electrode electrically stimulating the heart muscle. Figure C shows the location and general size of a single chamber, or single lead, pacemaker in the upper chest. The wire with the electrode is inserted into the right ventricle of the heart through a vein in the upper chest.
This fig gives pacemaker pulse generator Which houses a battery and tiny computer
electrode which is used in the pacemaker
Pacemaker generator-it is compose of leads and electrode
WHAT IS PACEMAKER SYSTEM .
This figure gives clear view of the pacemaker system ,in this fig we can see the active parts of a pacemaker. The circuitry is one of the most important part which holds two integrated circuits and external components .The pacer chip contains the pulse generator, output circuitry, sense amplifiers, detectors, rate limiter, analog-to-digital converter, programming and telemetry circuitry, and clock circuitry. The micro chip contains a complete 8-b microprocessor, 4 kB of read-only memory, 2 kB of random-access memory, and one external port
TYPES OF PACEMAKER PROGRAMMING
There are two main types of programming for pacemakers
demand pacing
Rate-responsive pacing.
A demand pacemaker monitors your heart rhythm. It only electrically stimulates your heart if itâ„¢s beating too slow or if it misses a beat.
A rate-responsive pacemaker will speed up or slow down your heart rate depending on how active you are. To do this, the rate-responsive pacemaker monitors your sinus node rate, breathing, blood temperature, or other factors to determine your activity level. Most people who need a pacemaker to continually set the pace of their heartbeat have ra e-responsive pacemakers.
THE CHALLENGES
The pace maker can get effected if it getâ„¢s exposed to electromagnetic fields. It should not be placed near the strong electric fields. The cell phones should not be in close with the place where the pace maker is kept because it may get effected with the radio frequencies, so it should be far away from those devices which will deal with the radio frequencies .Some of the advanced pacemaker are built to resist even the radio frequencies and they can work like a normal pacemaker even in this conditions
ADVANCEMENTS IN THE PACEMAKER.
The first invented pacemaker controlled only the rate of heart beat at which it should beat .But the advancements in the pacemaker enhanced the control on the pacemaker. Many of these enhancements have been made possible by the transition to microprocessor controlled pacemakers. Some advanced pacemaker has ability to sense the rate of heart beat and work according the beats , if the beats are slow it increases the beats to the normal level nad if the beats are normal the pacemaker stops itâ„¢s functionallity
THE FUTURE
With the increase in number of senior citizens in the world, there will be a greater percentage of population who require pacemakers, so the research continue to develop the promising device which last long, more reliable and more versatile. Advances in the battery such as using radio isotopes for power will improve the longevity of the implanted pacemaker Developments in microelectronics will provide even for a smaller one.
CONCLUSION
Thus electronics help us to change the life of those people who are suffering from the heart problems and several other serious medical disorders. So pacemaker has been the solution for the heart patients. Letâ„¢s wish that the electronics helps the coming generations to solve more problems.
REFERENCES
http://www.google.com
http://www.wikipedai.com
Mc William jA Electrical simulation of the
Heart in man
Br Med J 1:384-50 .Retrieved on 2007-10-24.
Partial quote in "Electrical Stimulation of the Heart in Man - 1889", Heart Rhythm Society, Accessed May 11,2007
Permenent Transvenous pacing in 1962 parsonnet v,pace,1:285,1978
http://www.hno.harvard.edu/gazette/2001/...-zoll.html
INDEX
Pacemaker
History
Pacemaker is for whom
Pacemaker changes lifeâ„¢s for patients
With what this pacemaker is made up of
How does the pacemaker works
What is pacemaker system
Types of pacemaker programming
The challenges
The advancements in the pacemaker
The future
Conclusion
References


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Offline source code maker
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[7555]


ABSTRACT
Artificial pace maker is a one of the modern marvel in the medical science, it is the medical science solution to the electrical problems of a slow or irregular heartbeats. Pace maker is an electronic device that delivers electrical stimulation to the heart to help regulating its beat. Our heart beats because of the natural pacemaker which produce electrical impulses .These impulses cause heart to contract and pump blood and the contraction takes place in a regular intervals .The impulses travel from the pacemaker cells to the muscle walls through some electrical path and cause contraction, generally a normal healthy human heart produces a heartbeat of about 60-100 beats per minute. If there is any interfere with the flow of electrical impulses, this will result in the irregular heartbeats i.e. too slow or two fast heart beats and a complete block of the electrical path. If this occurs contraction of the heart is stopped and blood will not get pumped. In this case a artificial pacemaker is employed in the place of natural pacemaker which works similar to it.
Pacemaker is a biomedical device that can regulate the human heart beat when normal mechanism was broken down. Pacemaker is surgically implemented in the chest cavity and has electrodes that are directly in contact with the heart . PACE MAKER IS FOR WHOM? It is for those who are having a A complete block of the heart's electrical pathway. A slow beat. An irregular rhythm.
The heart is composed of atrial and ventricle muscle that makeup the myocardium and specialized fibers that can be sub divided into excitation and conduction fibers. Once electrical activations initiated, contraction of the muscle follows. An orderly sequence of activation of the cardiac muscle in a regularly timed manner is critical for the optimal functioning of the heart. The excitation and conduction system, responsible for the control of the regular pumping of the heart is presented in below Figure .

The first ECG wave within the cardiac cycle is the P-wave, reflecting atrial depolarization. Conduction of the cardiac impulse proceeds from the atria through a series of specialized cardiac structures (the AV node and the His-Purkinje system) to the ventricles. There is a short relatively iso electric segment following the P-wave. This is the PQ interval, which is related to the propagation delay (0.2 s) induced by the AV node. Once the large muscle mass of the ventricles is excited, a rapid and large deflection is observed on the surface ECG. Depolarization of the ventricles is represented by the QRS complex or R-wave. Following the QR complex.
Initial methods employed in electrically stimulating the heart were performed by applying a current that would cause contraction of the muscle tissue of the heart. Albert S. Hyman stated that the introduced electric impulse serves no other purpose than to provide a controllable irritable point from which a wave of excitation may arise normally and sweep over the heart along its accustomed pathways. Hyman designed the first experimental heart pacemaker in 1932 as shown in below.
Wilson Great batch and the cardiologist W.M. Chardack developed the first fully implantable pacemaker. This device was essentially used to treat patients with complete AV block caused by Stokes-Adams diseases, delivering a single-chamber ventricular pacing. It measured 6 cm in diameter and 1.5-cm thick, and the total weight of the pacemaker was approximately 180 g. The pacemaker circuit delivered 1-ms wide pulses to the electrode, a pulse amplitude of 10 mA and a repetition rate of 60 bpm. The average current drain of the circuit under these conditions was about 12 µA, which, energized by ten mercury-zinc cells, gave a continuous operation life estimated at five years.
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hi! i want to make an experimental project on pacemaker. so i want to know how to make an artificial pacemaker circuit???
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To get full information or details of project on pacemaker please have a look on the pages

http://askguru.net/t-artificial-pacemaker-full-report

if you again feel trouble on project on pacemaker please reply in that page and ask specific fields in project on pacemaker
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